As many species and breeds of pets, there are medical conditions to be aware of. Here is a link to dog-specific conditions by breed.
Your first line of defense in ensuring your pet is healthy is to do all you can to ensure they receive a complete, balanced and nutritious diet; that they're active and maintain their ideal weight; they receive preventive medications and vaccinations as recommended; and that they receive regular and as-needed care from your trusted veterinary care team.
If your family pet is acting out of sorts or has a visible issue, do take them to the vet for a checkup. Here's a symptom checker that may help you narrow the problem down.